‘A Boerejood on Steroids’ – Dominique Malherbe’s Searching for Sarah: A Review essay


Dr Veronica Belling is the author of Bibliography of South African Jewry (1997), Yiddish Theatre in South Africa (2008), and the translator of Leibl Feldman's The Jews of Johannesburg (2007) and Yakov Azriel Davidson: His Writings in the Yiddish Newspaper, Der Afrikaner, 1911-1913 (2009). She is a regular contributor to Jewish Affairs.

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As literary executrix to the ‘father of Afrikaans literature’ and Senator in the Union Parliament, Cornelis Jakobus Langenhoven (1873-1932), the name of Sarah Goldblatt (1889-1975) has become synonymous with the fight for the recognition of the Afrikaans language. She was the first woman to be employed on the editorial board of the Afrikaans daily newspaper, Die Burger (1918-1919).[i] Appointed Langenhoven’s literary executrix in his will[ii], after his wife’s death in 1950, she enjoyed sole control of his literary legacy. After the death of his wife she had his house in Oudtshoorn, Arbeidsgenot, preserved as a National monument. She protected the rights of the family when his poem, Die Stem, was adopted as the national anthem of the Union of South Africa in 1957.[iii] She was the inspiration behind the Jubilee celebration of his birth that was held in Oudtshoorn in 1973.[iv]

Sarah taught Afrikaans at the Tokai Public School, the Cape Town Training College in Retreat as well as at the Central Girls’ School under Roza Van Gelderen. Until her retirement in 1944 she was connected to the Brooklyn Primary School, and also taught at Herschel Girls’ School, Christian Brothers’ College in Sea Point as well as at the Kindergarten Teachers’ Training College in Claremont.[v] In addition she gave private lessons at her home to students as well as to members of the public and between 1961 and 1962 she gave lessons on the Afrikaans Programme of the radio that were very highly rated.[vi] She also published three collections of Afrikaans poetry.[vii]

Sarah Goldblatt’s great niece, Dominique Malherbe, has just published a long overdue book about her great aunt, that appeared simultaneously in English and Afrikaans. In the original English, it is entitled, “Searching for Sarah.” while in Afrikaans translation, it is entitled, “Op Soek Na Saartjie.” It attempts to answer many of the questions that surround her, and reads like a detective novel even ending with a cliffhanger! Malherbe is the granddaughter of Israel Goldblatt, the younger brother of Sarah Goldblatt, who studied law and became a Judge in South West Africa, present day Namibia. Malherbe only met Sarah once in her life as a small child, as she had spent the first seven years of her life in South West Africa and by the time she was ten years old and living in Johannesburg, Sarah had passed away.

Malherbe’s study of Sarah Goldblatt was not the first. In 2003, Goldblatt’s was the subject of Masters dissertation at the University of Stellenbosch, entitled “Sarah Goldblatt: Letterkundige Administrasie van C. J. Langenhoven” by Leonie Van Zyl. Now I myself had also researched Sarah Goldblatt for a doctoral thesis entitled “Recovering the Lives of South African Jewish Women During the Migration Period, c1880-1939,” (University of Cape Town, 2013). So I was acquainted with the main sources that Malherbe had examined: the Langenhoven and the Goldblatt archival collections at the University of Stellenbosch; J. C. Kannemeyer’s seminal biography of Langenhoven, entitled, “Langenhoven: a lewe” (Tafelberg, 1995) ; and of course Van Zyl’s Masters dissertation.

However whereas my focus was quite narrow honing in on Goldblatt’s Jewish identity, Malherbe’s aim was to reconstruct her life and particularly her relationship with Langenhoven, as evidenced by the sub-title of her book, “The Woman Who Loved Langenhoven,” or in Afrikaans, “Langenhoven’s se geheime liefde,” Malherbe’s aim was to give Goldblatt, the recognition that she had been denied in the past for her work of promoting Langenhoven’s legacy. In addition she wished to rehabilitate the image of Goldblatt, presented by Kannemeyer, or in her words, to offset the “Kannemeyer context.” In his seminal biography of Langenhoven, Kannemeyer presents Goldblatt in a disparaging light, at times almost as a figure of fun. He is at a pains to deny or at best to downplay the fact that she meant anything to him other than being ‘an emotional pillar of strength’. (20)

Sarah was born in London in 1889, the oldest of the four children of David Nathan Goldblatt and Fanny Esther Smith. Her father, David Goldblatt, who was born in Radom in Poland, was educated in a yeshiva, but also received some secular education in Warsaw and Berlin. Despite his yeshiva (rabbinical academy) education he was not religious and a contemporary described him “as a brilliant outspoken socialist Yiddishist, with little pretence of orthodoxy.” [viii] At the age of twenty three he married and immigrated to London where Goldblatt was born. He opened a bookshop that his wife kept an eye on while he studied at the British Museum, where he became acquainted with socialist and anarchist philosophy, very popular at that time.[ix]

In 1897 the family emigrated to Cape Town. David Goldblatt opened a bookshop in Long Street and also started a small printing works, publishing a series of Yiddish newspapers. Initially unsuccessful, in 1904 he began publishing the weekly Der Idisher Advokat (The Jewish Advocate) that lasted until 1914.[x] David Goldblatt was a staunch Jewish nationalist, a Yiddishist, who believed that Jews should unite under the banner of the Yiddish language, much as Langenhoven believed that the Afrikaners should support Afrikaans. He was associated with the fight for the recognition of Yiddish as a language that would permit Jews to immigrate to South Africa, and was one of the earliest members of the Cape Jewish Board of Deputies.[xi] In 1915 he abandoned his family and left first for London and then for the United States[xii] where he published the first two volumes of a Yiddish encyclopedia.[xiii]

As was the custom in those days education for girls was not given very high priority and Goldblatt was forced to leave school after Standard Four to help in her father’s printing shop. However she continued to study privately,[xiv] and in 1911 she passed the Zuid-Afrikaanse Taalbond examination[xv] and also completed her T3 at the Teachers’ Training college.[xvi] Many years later, in 1924,[xvii] she completed her matric examination. On the other hand, her younger brother, Israel, Malherbe’s grandfather, continued his education to matric at Normal College and went on to obtain a B.A. degree at the University of the Cape of Good Hope, and an L.L.B. through the University of South Africa. In 1919 he was admitted to the Bar.[xviii]

When she arrived in Oudtshoorn in 1912, and began working as Langenhoven’s assistant on the newspaper, Het Zuid-Westen, a twice weekly newspaper, to which he had just been appointed editor, they formed a very close relationship. He became ‘Chief’ and she was ‘Sub’. In Cape Town she called her car, ‘Herrie’ and her home in Mowbray was, ‘Loeloeraai,’named for a pet elephant and a visitor from outer space respectively, in Langenhoven’s stories. Although she knew no Afrikaans at the time, with her background in Yiddish, German and High Dutch, Goldblatt mastered the language very quickly and soon made the struggle for the Afrikaans language her own. However the newspaper only lasted two and a half years, when due to the collapse of the ostrich feather industry it was forced to close down. Sarah continued to live in Oudtshoorn for another three years working for a Commercial evening school and later for a school near George (82). In 1917 she returned to Cape Town where she embarked on a career in journalism and teaching while still continuing working with Langenhoven’s manuscripts until his death in 1932 (75).

Langenhoven was married to a woman ten years older than himself and who had three children of her own. Together they had a daughter, Engela. Nonetheless members of both Goldblatt’s and Langenhoven’s family[xix] assert that their relationship was not purely platonic, and attribute Goldblatt’s agreement to remain in the background, to the strict code of social conduct in those days and in respect of Langenhoven’s determination to gain acceptance for Afrikaans as an official language (162).[xx] Langenhoven’s wife tolerated the affair particularly as Sarah helped her to cope with Langenhoven who often drank too much and went through periods of deep depression.

What is a complete revelation in this book is that, according to Malherbe, both families seem to be certain that Sarah and Langenhoven had a love child, a boy, who would have been born in 1925 and who was kept a secret. Rumour has it that he was adopted by a family by the name of Van der Merwe and that he became a medical doctor. He would be in his 90s today and probably no longer alive. An extensive correspondence between Langenhoven and Goldblatt exists, some of which they deliberately destroyed so that nothing is ever mentioned in this regard. However there are cryptic references in the letters to a ‘story’ about which they cannot speak (103), which could well refer to this child. In another letter written in 1924, Sarah complains about tiredness that could be attributed to her pregnancy, although it could well have been the result of her having just completed her matric exams, and having to resume her work for Langenhoven immediately. There is also a letter in January 1926 referring to a baby which she is helping to look after at her mother’s home (though there is nothing to indicate that it is hers) who is thereafter taken to a boat together with its carer (53). Also cited is Langenhoven’s advice to a mythical son that is presented in point form. Points 11-13 advise him not to love where he cannot marry; not to marry when he cannot love; and finally not to marry! (208). What would also seem to confirm this rumour is the very close relationship that Goldblatt had with Langenhoven’s daughter, Engela (evidenced in some 88 letters between them (41)) who made her the godmother of her son, Guillaume, who in turn made her the godmother of his four children, whom she regards as her own children (171). Her relationship with Langenhoven and particularly the search for the missing child is central to the book and creates the dramatic tension. It is referred to indirectly as early as the opening paragraph.

Malherbe has her readers accompany her on her voyage of discovery. She begins with a reference to Sarah’s aforementioned father and her great grandfather, David Goldblatt, the Yiddish writer and publisher (23), who had inexplicably deserted the family for the United States in 1915. Later there is a full chapter expanding on her father.

She then jumps thirty years to the prizewinning Afrikaans writer, Elsa Joubert, one of Sarah’s closest friends who had boarded in Sarah’s home in 1945 when she came to study at the University of Cape Town. She had used Sarah as a sounding board for her early literary works. She tells us that Sarah organized everyone in Oudtshoorn, probably referring to the Centennial celebrations of Langenhoven’s birth in 1973. But she knew nothing of an affair or of the early days. She also remembered how even after Langenhoven’s death Sarah would regularly travel to Oudtshoorn to spend Christmas with his widow, Vroutjie. She had also visited Sarah in her final days in Stikland hospital before she died (24-26).

Next we encounter the Brummers, Langenhoven’s only descendants, who are at the centre of her story. Guillaume Brummer is Langenhoven’s grandson, the only son of Langenhoven’s only daughter, Engela. It is Guillaume who provides Malherbe with confirmation of the love child. This despite the fact that Guillaume’s daughter warns Malherbe in advance that her father’s memory is impaired. During their meeting Guillaume categorically confirms the existence of a child and even recalls meeting him when he was in about Standard Four at school (107-109). Sarah had played a very significant role in Guillaume’s life, looking after him when his mother, Engela, who like her father before her, was at times incapacitated with alcoholism and depression. It was Sarah who had encouraged him to pursue a career and who had motivated him to study overseas. It is Guillaume who also provides the only solid evidence of a physical relationship between Langenhoven and Sarah, on the basis of a conversation that he overheard between his mother and his grandmother as a young child. Guillaume himself never met his grandfather as he was born two years after his death in 1932.

Malherbe continues her quest in the archives at the University of Stellenbosch. She also makes contact with the supervisor of Leonie Van Zyl’s Masters thesis, Professor Albert Grundlingh (author of the foreword to the book), only to discover that his interest in Sarah had stemmed from the fact that he had grown up in Oudtshoorn in a house on the grounds of the Langenhoven home, Arbeidsgenot. Here he had encountered Sarah whom he characterizes as “a Boerejood on steroids” (45-46)

In a chapter dedicated to Sarah’s father, David Goldblatt, whose life choices are in many ways as secretive and mysterious as those of his daughter, Malherbe provides some insights into the life of the family, and into David Goldblatt’s afterlife in the United States. It would appear that they were not a very happy family. Goldblatt was known to be a difficult man, the family was poor as Yiddish publishing was hardly lucrative, the siblings were not close, and there was no religion in which to take comfort. However, Malherbe hints further that molestation by her father may have accounted for Sarah’s sudden departure to Oudtshoorn in September 1912, and her attachment to Langenhoven as a substitute father figure. It would also explain why after his departure to the United States, David Goldblatt never made contact again with Sarah, with whom he had worked closely in his printing business, although he did retain contact with her younger brother, Israel, the only member of the family who went to see him off at the docks when he left (66-67).

Sarah’s inner world

What is really frustrating is that one never really penetrates Sarah’s inner world other than in relation to Langenhoven. What made her fall in love with Langenhoven and to devote her whole life to him? What was lacking in her own life? The few intimate glimpses we have of her all revolve around him. For example a story she wrote about herself following his death:

Forty years old, a woman, and alone to begin living her life from the start. All the interests that gave meaning to her life suddenly amount to nothing and just because she involuntarily and almost unknowingly did not live for herself but lived through him. And now the years stretch out ahead of her. Too old to be considered a sexual being? Such is the perception of people. A woman of forty has no more passion and should be satisfied with more modest interests. Her house, her people. Such was the case with her mother… (136)

Jewish identity

In an interview with Malherbe, by Tali Feinberg, published in the S. A. Jewish Report (May 2021) Malherbe says, “from a Jewish point of view, there was the least information about her.”[xxi] My conclusions with regard to Sarah’s Jewish identity largely concurred with that of Malherbe, from a religious point of view, but not with regard to her Zionist identity (69). I had discovered more information pertaining to her Zionist identity both in the Langenhoven archive, and in the local weekly, Zionist Record. I had also in the course of my research discovered more about her relationships with her Jewish friends.

Given her father’s socialist views and lack of religious orthodoxy it is unlikely that Goldblatt ever held very strong Jewish religious convictions. Langenhoven tried to influence her to believe in the Christian concept of God, but he never had much success.[xxii] She did not put much store upon either religion, neither Judaism nor Christianity.[xxiii] Afrikaans friends who visited her in her final illness commented on her lack of an anchor in her faith but that at times she called on Jesus Christ while also being visited by a rabbi. In her will she requested to be cremated, forbidden in the Jewish religion, and her ashes to be spread on Langenhoven’s grave. [xxiv]

As she also identified with Langenhoven’s staunch Afrikaner Nationalist views, she was very critical of the Jewish community for acculturating exclusively to the English speaking group and of regarding the Afrikaners as inferior. She felt that Jewish exclusivity had contributed to the resentments towards the Jews that were expressed by the Afrikaners, particularly in the 1930s and 1940s. She was torn between the demands of her dual identities, Jewish and Afrikaner. In a letter (also cited by Malherbe) she writes that, “I am a Jewess born and know all there is to be known of Jewish attitudes and at the same time I am Afrikaans in every fibre of my body, and I have felt the pain and anger of the contempt of superiority.” [xxv]

Although it is true that she distanced herself from the Jewish community and her closest friends were Afrikaners, Goldblatt was never regarded as an ‘outcast’ in the Jewish community as claimed by Kannemeyer.[xxvi] She still identified with the Jewish community that never failed to celebrate her achievements which enhanced their status in South Africa.[xxvii] On her arrival in Oudtshoorn she gave a lecture to the Bnoth Zion,[xxviii] and on 15 June 1914 she was acting in the capacity of Honorary Secretary of the Oudtshoorn Zionist society.[xxix] On more than one occasion, she contributed articles to Jewish newspapers, such as The Zionist Record and Hashalom. She drew up a curriculum for Afrikaans language and literature for the Zionist Youth Movement Habonim.[xxx]

Sarah had close Jewish friends as well and was part of the inner circle of Roza Van Gelderen (1890-1969) and Hilda Purwitsky (1901-1999) at whose Central Girls School (1926-1940) she taught for many years. When Purwitsky organized evening classes to teach English to the eastern European immigrant parents of her pupils, it was Goldblatt who assisted her in designing the syllabus.[xxxi] Van Gelderen and Purwitsky, were a same sex couple, strong Jewish women, whose lives - like that of Sarah - shed light on gender studies in the 1920s. Here Sarah was remembered as “an interesting character with the temper of the devil”.[xxxii]

The character of “Tante Saartjie”, her nickname, in Purwitsky and Van Gelderen’s regular column in the Cape Times is based on her. They describe her in the following terms: “She was one of those women who pride themselves on being plain and outspoken. She invariably asserted that she would say what she had to say, even if the King stood in front of her. Although at heart one of the kindest and best-intentioned women in the world, she always succeeded in making everyone around her uncomfortable and irritable.”[xxxiii]

Lack of acknowledgement and Kannemeyer’s disparagement of Sarah’s contribution.

Malherbe devotes at least two chapters to Kannemeyer’s depiction of Sarah that she attributes to the fact that Sarah is a woman and a Jew, an outsider in the Afrikaans community. She sources his quotes to illustrate how he has either distorted them or taken them out of context. While he acknowledges the physical relationship he characterises it not so much as a ‘mariage a trois’ but as the case of two women helping to keep an unstable and depressive man on his feet and productive.The saddest aspect of Kannemeyer’s description of Sarah, in my opinion, is his depiction of her final illness that he presents baldly with little sympathy. Sarah was 83 years old at the time that she organized the Langenhoven centenary, an incredible achievement, and within two years she had passed away. Malherbe provides us with the details. Sarah began to deteriorate after an attack of angina (185) and an unsuccessful cataract operation that left her virtually blind. Her last letter to her brother Israel was written on 26 November 1974. In February 1975 Jan Scannel wrote to her brother saying that she is finding it difficult to remember names and was losing the will to live (189). By 22 May 1975 she had passed away, a period of only five months, a disturbing ending for someone as accomplished as Sarah.

These are some of the reasons that contribute to Malherbe’s feeling that Sarah’s contribution has not been properly acknowledged. As a literary agent her work has never been equaled. The sixteen volume set of Langenhoven’s collected works went into six editions, 1933-1974 (116). To quote the blurb at the back of the book: “By the time Goldblatt died in 1975, more than two million of Langenhoven’s books had been sold – one of the greatest literary successes in South Africa. Sarah had made an immense contribution to Afrikaans literature and culture, yet as an outsider, she had barely been acknowledged.” Malherbe like the Afrikaans writer, Audrey Blignault, feels strongly that she should have been awarded an Honorary doctorate.

While I totally concur with Malherbe as far as her criticism of Kannemeyer’s depiction of Goldblatt is concerned, I cannot entirely agree with her complaint regarding the lack of acknowledgement of her achievements for Afrikaans. An oil painting of Sarah, dated 1960, was found in the possession of the C. P. Nel Museum in Oudtshoorn (41). In 1964 Sarah was granted an award for her work on behalf of the Afrikaans language by the Cape Centenary Foundation, that included the sum of R500 that she used to have a bust of Langenhoven made for Parliament (150-151). In a review of Malherbe’s book on Litnet, Professor Wium Van Zyl points out that her organisation of the celebration of the Langenhoven centenary in 1973 was proof of the very high esteem in which she was held by the most prominent leaders in the world of Afrikaans culture. Van Zyl himself witnessed the honour awarded her when she appeared on the stage in Stellenbosch in that same year.[xxxiv] Neither do the images of Sarah in the middle of the book confirm her lack of recognition.

Moreover her memorial service at the Maitland crematorium – as described by Kannemeyer - also negate this claim of lack of acknowledgement. Goldblatt passed away on 22 May 1975. On 23 May the leader article in Die Burger was devoted to her. Her connection to Langenhoven was described as having grown “into a lifelong connection with a new language and a new people”. Her memorial service at the Maitland Crematorium was attended by Senator Johan van der Spuy, Minister of National Education, The Rev. Charles Hopkins described Goldblatt as “a gift to South Africa at a time when such people were needed.” The former Mayoress, Mrs Joyce Newton Thompson, paid tribute to Goldblatt on behalf of the English speaking community to whom she was well known as a teacher of Afrikaans. The Secretary of the South African Jewish Board of Deputies, Issie Pinshaw, spoke movingly in Afrikaans about “the unfathomability of the adventures of the East European Jews who emigrated to South Africa and as Boerejode identified with the striving of the Afrikaan people.” Goldblatt’s ashes were buried in the garden of Arbeidsgenot in front of the bust of Langenhoven by I. Mitford Barberton that Goldblatt herself had donated. [xxxv]

One only has to compare Sarah’s funeral to that of another South African Jewish icon - born in the same year as Sarah Goldblatt - the writer, Sarah Gertrude Millin (1889-1968), who in 1952 was declared, “par excellence the interpreter of South Africa to the English-speaking world.”[xxxvi] A friend of Jan Christiaan Smuts and Jan Hofmeyr, who wrote biographies of Cecil John Rhodes (1933) and of Smuts (1936), her funeral was relatively small (under 100 people) and was not graced by a single member of parliament or other dignitary.[xxxvii]

Conclusion

Malherbe’s book is fascinating, thoroughly researched and presents Sarah warts and all. It is a contribution to Afrikaner and to South African Jewish historiography. However, despite the author’s ‘searching,’ the book is not entirely able to fulfill its promise of ‘finding Sarah.’ If anything the narrative arouses more questions than answers with hints and suggestions such as the possible molestation by her father; the “story of the two holes,” was Sarah a victim of rape? (106-110). The search for the love child hinges on a sexual act, whereas what the reader, who is “Searching for Sarah” really wants to know is what is going on inside her head, besides Langenhoven. Except for the story describing her feeling of utter emptiness after his death this is not forthcoming. By Malherbe’s own admission Sarah’s story remains unfinished.

Malherbe, Dominique. Searching for Sarah: the Women Who Loved Langenhoven. Cape Town: Tafelberg, 2021.


Notes

[i] Leonie Van Zyl, Sarah Goldblatt: Letterkundige Administrase van C. J. Langenhoven. (Thesis) M. A. - University of Stellenbosch, 2003, pp56-60.

[ii] J.C. Kannemeyer, Langenhoven:’n Lewe, Tafelberg, Kaapstad, 1995, pp18-20.

[iii] Van Zyl, 2003, pp81-87, 91.

[iv] Kannemeyer, 1995, pp. 48-65; Van Zyl, 2003, pp93-98.

[v] Kannemeyer, 1995, p22.

[vi] Van Zyl, 2003, pp.72-73, 75-76.

[vii] Liefde’s Kransie, H. J. de Bussy, Pretoria; Amsterdam, 1920; Wolf en Jakhals versies, Nasionale Pers, Kaapstad, 1920-1921.

[viii] Carmel Schrire & Gwynne Schrire The Reb and the rebel: Jewish narratives in South Africa 1892-1913. Claremont, South Africa: UCT Press, 2016.

[ix] Gustav Saron, “Western Province Jewry, 1870-1902” in Saron & Hotz, eds, The Jews in South Africa, 1955, p. 43; Gustav Saron, “David Goldblatt: Champion of Yiddish, Zionist Record and S. A. Jewish Chronicle, New Year Annual, September 1978; M. De Saxe, The South African Jewish Year Book 1929, p. 253.

[x] Joseph Abraham Poliva, A Short History of the Jewish Press and Literature of South Africa From its Earliest Days Until the Present Time, Johannesburg [1961], pp. 16-17.

[xi] Milton Shain, Jewry and Cape Society: the Origins and Activities of the Jewish Board of Deputies for the Cape Colony. Historical Publication Society, Cape Town, c1983, pp. 83, 91.

[xii] Naomi Jacobson, Karen Blum-Marshall, “Who was Israel Goldblatt: an introduction”, in Israel Goldblatt, Building bridges: Namibian Nationalists, Clemens Capuuo, Hosea Kutako, Brendan Simbwaye, Samuel Witbooi, edited by Dag Henrichson, Naomi Jacobson and Karen Marshall, Basler Afrika Biographien, Basel, 2010, pp. vii-viii.

[xiii] Di Algemeyne Ilustrirte Entsiklopedye. Nyuyork: Advansd Entsiklopedye, 1920-1923 (3 vols).

[xiv] Van Zyl, 2003, p. 9.

[xv] G 202. Pe D. 1 (2), Sertifikaat aan Sarah Goldblatt van die Zuid-Afrikaanse Taalbond, 1911, cited in Van Zyl, 2003, p. 10.

[xvi] G 202. Pe D. 3 (5), Aansoekform as skoolhoof by departement van opvoeding, g.d., cited in Van Zyl, 2003, p. 11.

[xvii] Hilda Purwitsky, interviewed by Noreen Scher, Cape Town, 1981, Kaplan Centre Interviews, BC949, 0197, pp. 6-8..

[xviii] Naomi Jacobson, Karen Blum-Marshall, 2010, pp. viii-ix.

[xix] Kannemeyer, 1995, pp. 651-653.

[xx] Phillips, cited in Kannemeyer, 1995, pp. 73-74.

[xxi] S. A. Jewish Report (14-28 May 2021, p. 20.

[xxii] Kannemeyer, 1995, p.

[xxiii] G 22 L. 1. NB 10 Afskrifte van aantekeninge in ou dagboeke. Langenhoven collection, Gericke Bibliotheek.

[xxiv] Kannemeyer, 1995, p. 662.

[xxv] Letter from Goldblatt to a Mr Hotz in Bloemfontein; Leonie Van Zyl, Sarah Goldblatt, 2003, pp. 56-60.

[xxvi] Kannemeyer, 1995, p. 5.

[xxvii] See George Aschman, "Langenhoven centenary this year: South Africa's debt to Sarah Goldblatt," Jewish Affairs, 28(1),1973: 11-14.

[xxviii] Zionist Record, 26 February 1913, p. 25.

[xxix] Zionist Record, 15 June 1914, p. 6.

[xxx] Joodse aangeleenthede. Langenhoven collection, Gericke Biblioteek.

[xxxi] “In and Around the Peninsula: the End of the Evening Classes”, SAJC, 5 September 1930, p. 580.

[xxxii] Dorothy Whitesman, interviewed by Milton Shain, Cape Town, 1981, Kaplan Centre Interviews, BC949, 0269, p. 64.

[xxxiii] Rozilda, “After the Examinations”, Cape Times, 7 March, 1925, Rozilda, Newspaper articles, Hilda Purwitsky and Roza Van Gelderen papers, BC 1271.

[xxxiv] Wium Van Zyl, “Op soek na Saartjie deur Dominique Malherbe: ‘n litnet akademies-resensie-essay” https://www.litnet.co.za/op-so...

[xxxv] Kannemeyer, 1995, pp. 666-668.

[xxxvi] Edgar Bernstein, “Jewish Contributions to the Union’s Literature”, Jewish Affairs, 15(5), 1960: 27-32.

[xxxvii] Martin, Rubin, Sarah Gertrude Millen: a South African Life. Ad Donker, Johannesburg, 1977, pp. 280-281.

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